Newborns and Human Speech

Even a five-day-old newborns is able to recognize a human speech from the other sounds.

 

This is evident from the results of the Japanese-French research study team, which investigates brain activity of the youngest children. It seems that this finding will be the beginning of the next research studies about the brain development of a child.

 

Twelve five-days-old newborns from France have participated in this research conducted by the Japanese and the French scientists from the Advanced research Laboratory and Laboratory de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique.

 

The scientists used the optical topography method (using the infrared rays) to measure the changes in a blood flow in the brain cortex of the newborns. First, a newspaper article was read to the children and then the same text was played to them again, but this time it was read backwards. The investigators of the study found out that in the first case, the blood flow in the brain cortex was doubled in comparison to the second case (reading backward). In addition to that, it was also shown that already at such a young age, the brain hemispheres are highly specialized. Throughout the experiment, a greater activity was always demonstrated by the left hemisphere which plays an essential role in speech capabilities.

 

According to the head of the research team, Hideaki Koizumi, the newborns are able to recognize a human speech according to the rhythm and intonation of the voice.

Speaking is Hard Work

Speaking is hard work – motivate your child! Child starts to speak about the 12th month of life. At first it uses one word or often one syllable expression that is relevant to current situation (bye bye, wee) or particular person (mo mo, da da, na na) or animal sounds (like woof, meow…) or thing (neee nooh, brrrum).

 

These expressions are not just names they can also represent full sentences or they are relevant to situation in context where the meaning isn’t certain. When a child says “ brrum” it can mean “look I have a car” or “ I see that a car is passing” or “are we going in a car” or “ I can hear a car” or similar.

Interjection

Common things in child speech are interjection words used instead of verbs. So “hop”- to jump, to throw; “hammy” – to eat, I am hungry; “bye” – see you later, to leave etc. The way we respond, repeat or finish the sentence we show positive feedback to the child. It enables it to expand its own vocabulary. A sentence will develop by linking words together like “dada brrum bye bye, momma hammy…”

 

Vocabulary

Firstly a child puts words in order by their meaning and emphasis or following our example. Because it is difficult to pronounce more syllable word it adapts words to its ability and shorten them or makes own kinds. It learns to recognise words like mine, my it will see the difference between I and you. It is able to respond correctly to yes or no. The vocabulary expands due to the incentive of the environment and mutual communication.  If we talk with our children a lot and encourage our child ‘talking appetite’ it will have a vocabulary of about 400 words about the 3rd year of its life. It is only for orientation, each child have different ability.

 

Childs development

Child’s development is a complex issue. All abilities are interlinked and follow each other. Independent walking and better dexterity has effects on the progress of its brain ability and vice versa. Between the first and the second year the locomotion develops significantly.  Because child is more active it expands its surrounding and have more opportunities to expand own ability.

 

Hearing

To progress in speech it is important to have good hearing. A child has to learn to make differences between variety of sounds and pronunciation of various letters. This skill is called phonematic differentiation and it is decisive in the correct pronunciation. Any kind of hearing impediment gives child a disadvantage. The development of a speech with hearing defect is impaired and it needs specialised care from early stages of life.

 

Sight

Also sight can affect the speech development. Child carefully watches our lips and tries to imitate the movement in pronunciation. It is important for a child not just hearing but also seeing their opponent. Between the second and the third year of life a child is equipped enough to progress well in correct forms and content. Vocabulary is active and passive according to experience and impulses from its environment and it expands and develops progressively. The child practices the pronunciation of syllables from our phonematic system. Three year old is able to use speech as a communication tool, for covering its needs, to fit in its surrounding and of course to please its ancestors. The communication is for the child a necessity but also for fun and entertainment.

 

Environment

Each child is unique and it carries specific equipment of abilities. It is surrounded by loved ones with similar manners. speaking is hard workThat is why the development of each child carries the specific marks typical for its family that differ from others. Development of a child is subtle and continuous. Each child progresses in its abilities systematically step by step. Some children’s development can progress in leaps. A period of fast learning can be suddenly changed to a period of stagnation. But the development happens no matter what; it is harmonic and direct in all areas. Third group of children whose development is uneven, for example a child is more mature in some areas but slower in others, special care should be taken to “tune up” the complexity of their development.

 

Taciturn

There could be many causes to the child’s speech development. If a child is healthy, its normal phycho-locomtive development  is without deviation and has the right surrounding for speech development, and does not start speaking about the age of three we call this the extended  physiological taciturn. It shouldn’t lead to worries. This kind of child just needs all-round careful lead including support in its communication ability. It has a very good chance to catch up and fit in among its peers.

 

Repetition

Parents’ attitude and encouragement largely contributes to child’s speech development and its form and content. You cannot separate them. Taking up correct pronunciation of syllables requires manifold repetition of particular syllable in variety of words. It has to practice it in many situations as well as it has to have the opportunity and has to know how. It uses its senses and our willingness to repeat it many times. It is of course time and patience consuming process. In the first year of life child need to strengthen its emotional attachment, feel secure and parent should take the activity in hand. In the second year we aim to teach a child to use communication tools to be able to covet its needs.

Several principles to follow:

  1. We should always speak to a child in correct form of a word, don’t use ‘baby talk’.
  2. Pace of speech should be calm and understandable.
  3. Modulate with emphasis but don’t over-do it.
  4. Repeat child’s words in correct pronunciation and don’t pick on wrong-doing.
  5. Let child watch your face when you are speaking.
  6. Alternate activities with a break, don’t over-work your child. Make sure it sleeps regularly.
  7. Use song, rhymes, read fairy tales or stories. Look through pop-up books. Comment on the stories or the activity which you do together. Use communication games.
  8. Avoid drilling. Don’t ever use: “Say it now!”. You must not force your child to speak to you. The appetite to speak to us freely is important. Use positive feedback.

 

Questions

Somewhere around year three children might start asking: “What is it?” and immediately following with “Why?”. The essence of these questions lies in gathering information. However we discover soon that child is asking the same things over and over even though it knows the answer. If we consider the content of our ‘dialog’ we find out that child is not seeking information but it exercises your attachment to it and your personal guard. It is showing us that it has an interest in communication with us and wants to speak to us. Sensitive and understanding parent responds to this challenge with patience, doesn’t shout at the child and encourages with the answer their child to speak. It is not always easy to answer the probing question. However if your child hears only: “ Leave me alone. Don’t ask such a silly question. What is it now?”, your child will stop asking and its communication development will come to stop. If we feel tired or are not in the mood or just had a hard day, we have the right to say just “I don’t really know” or “I will find out” or stir the conversation to something else. It will give us at least a little break. Good dialog is always two sided and child will learn this for its future life.

 

Speaking

Even if we are caring and supporting our child in communication skills very well, it is also common, that you child is not able to say many words. It may even have some handicap in comparison to other. Around year three a child is able to actively use about 400 words (as mentioned above). Its speech is the major communication tool with its environment. It does not happen automatically. It is the result of many experiments and mistakes made while learning. Parents have the responsibility to support their child in any way possible, praise it, and motivate it. It can be impossible to judge objectively your child development by yourself. You are not able to compare and you may also be bias. If a child, at the age of three, doesn’t speak, I’d recommend visiting your local speech therapist who assesses your child and suggest further progress.

Speaking is hard work… When a child is learning to speak it becomes the busiest mentally overloaded person on the planet who, luckily, isn’t aware of it.

Upbringing of Your Child

With authority or democratically? A never ending question. Upbringing is a complicated and difficult process and it’s almost impossible to choose one way over the other.

 

A child whose parent tell him constantly off or give him always orders without any explanation; a child that have no spontaneous attachment to anyone (especially to its mother) or has no security… That kind of child will definitely lack self confidence and will only act his life out. The world around it will seem cold, strange or hostile and it will have no understanding why!

 

Upbringing with authority

 

When constantly applying authority a child will get used to carry out task thoughtlessly, giving up to parents’ authority and take up only their opinion. It will become less active because it will be afraid of a punishment. It’s becoming more fearful and is less tolerant to others. When he or she socializes with their peers, with different opinions, his or hers activity increases and it behaves “as a bad child”. It can also lead to aggression while putting its own self forward.

Liberal upbringing

On the other hand there is a child that gets all it wants, it is overwhelmed with money or presents where parent compensate their lack of interest or their emotions. They have no interest in their child’s hobbies, experiences or even their worries so actually they’re neglecting their child’s needs. Even this child will have problems to fit in society it will feel unsure of itself.

Under the influence of so called liberal way the child aims at no goals, it does not need to overcome any obstacles. His patience, persistence or character activity does not develop; it doesn’t trust its own ability. It doesn’t need to – parents who apply this way of upbringing make sure that their child doesn’t have to do anything, doesn’t have to deal with anything all is done for them.

Democratic upbringing

When you encourage the right characteristics in your child, such as persistence or self-control; when you ask of your child adequate tasks to complete or when you take your child as a valid member of your family who has adequate responsibilities that are done without a prompt; when we don’t reach for inadequate punishment and the relationship between parents and children is friendly that is when we exercise the style of upbringing called democratic and it also is the ideal way.

Child is able to develop his diligence and character stability. The care is consistent but subtle. Rules have boundaries and they are kept within the needs of the whole family. Children who listen to parents are able to reason if to bend the stereotype or not.

Communication

It is interesting to find out that something works with a particular child but does not work with other. Fundamental is the relationship between the carer and the cared for. Equally important is also the current situation. The way we bring our child up means: being able to constantly communicate with each other and look for the right methods.

A child get also affected by the carers’ temper, immaturity or aggression,  instability, his intellectual or somatic handicaps, dissatisfaction of his own life and similar. Strong are also the experiences from their own childhood if he or she was happy or not at home or school.

When child’s character is formed the positive emotional attachment plays major role. Ideal way to care is actually being able to use positive emotions with democratic way. However to find out to what extend isn’t easy.

Setting up boundaries

Today the liberal upbringing seems to lead in the statistics. Parents should define specific boundaries, straight and valid rules and strictly keep to them. I will lead the child towards responsible behavior. Of course parent should learn how to speak to their kids. They should be able to explain the rule and why the child should keep to them. Important for the upbringing is the relationship between parents because child is constantly watching and copying its surrounding.

It is rather difficult to practice this and it does not always work out because, as we said before, each child is unique.

We should therefore think about how our personality affects our child or if we could improve something in our relationship. Good communication with a child and well-spent time together are not just necessary contribution but also a source of fun and pleasure for ourselves.

What Temper Does Your Child Have?

Is your child „full of beans“or could your little one be livelier? How come that even siblings have such a different character? Child’s temper is affected by many factors his genetic inheritance, influence of the environment and also self-discipline.

 

Sangvinistic child’s temper

 

Sangvinistic child is happy, lively and always on the go. It is not able to concentrate, is very superficial. It takes its strength and energy from anything rhythmical. From its heart beat, its blood flow even form breathing. These children need this regularity for their games and even life. They are usually agile. They change their interests very quickly; they come up with new games quickly because they get strongly affected by their environment.

Sangvinistic children are usually popular but they are also called the naughty ones. A child with sangvinic temper is in their nature harmonic but need rhythms in everything to keep its harmony. If we can supply this child with energetic rhythm it will become easier to care for it. Don’t rush the child into anything it needs time to wander in its thoughts or its fantasy. The best opportunity to practice this is at playing games or doing simple housework tasks.

 

Melancholic child

 

Melancholic child temper

Melancholic child temper

Melancholic child tends to be sad, weepy and gets easily tired. It is in its own thoughts has often headache or digestive problems. A melancholic child needs a lot of soul encouragement. It likes to listen to other peoples stories where it can feel a portion of tragedy or heroes fatality. It will take it away from its own tragic thoughts. Do offer to this child enough stories to listen to r read. These children also like melodic tunes or even sentimental music. It is more effective to provide the child with deep experiences than to make him or her laugh. They like to be spoiled or pampered; they live through the attention of the surrounding. They need a lot of understanding and love.

A melancholic child hates cold water and loves warmth, so we shouldn’t use cold showers. They prefer sweet meals and they need it for the energy intake. We should make sure to adapt the diet accordingly. Our care should aim towards „uplifting their difficult fate“. Any movement is helpful combined with rhythmical music.

 

Choleric child’s temper

 

Choleric child is fierce, quick-tempered they have „devil in their eyes“. They can be vicious to force their own will and then they are able to co-operate and calm themselves.  The little choleric likes dramatic stories and lives through them deeply. Its own need of adventure fills by doing daring activity. It doesn’t usually need long sleep and is not picky at food. The assets of choleric temper are determination, action, and dynamics and strong will. Danger is in quick decision making that is not always thought through.

To care for a choleric child we need a large portion of patience and self-discipline. It is necessary to show him that we are absolutely calm when it loses its temper. This child needs from his adult calm and intelligent lead because it is not able to keep his temper under control.

It is best to offer work to do to this child so it can use it strength a will effectively. Let it do physical tasks when they are needed. This kind of child need a lot of space where it can run, roll on the floor, „go crazy“. It is good if it realises that is not able to carry something out or that it doesn’t dare doing it.  But he has to learn it himself! It shows its love to others very physically like a touch, poke or even a hit. Don’t ever make fun of it! Choleric child (actually all children) is very sensitive to it.  When you give to this kind of child plenty of love and support if will return it with devotion.

 

Phlegmatic child’s temper

 

Phlegmatic child is calm or even slow, it doesn’t get excited, and it is passive. It seems to look sleepy or tired like if it wasn’t there. A little phlegmatic is lead by regular unchangeable rhythm. It knows when is time to eat or sleep, is meticulous in its demands on regularity and order. That is why it is very reliable. It presents itself like so in all activity at school, in play… it keeps repeating its task. It is not able to speculate over complex matter. It is slower at understanding, learning and it can have problems at school.

The biggest positive is its memory it is able to learn many fact by never-ending repetition. It usually hasn’t got many friends because it appears boring to others. Even though it lives in loving family it is not very able to show emotions. It compensates it handicaps by eating. A phlegmatic child likes to eat sweet or heavy fatty foods or generally likes food. It loves warmth and long sleep.

The aim of your care should be overcoming the negative characteristics such as disinterest, drowsiness, rigidity or overeating. You should encourage the better characteristics like reliability, persistence, truthfulness, devotion or order. If we make strong emotional bond we find out that the love of a phlegmatic person is permanent and loyal.

 

The personality of a person is very complex and this is an example of 4 types. We are not able to exactly determinate child’s temper. Sangvinism is a typical child’s temper and it interweave with other kinds.

From Little Baby to Tiny Tot: Making The Transition to Big Kid Room

“Whatcha you doin,’ Mommy?”

I still remember waking up with my two year olds cute little face pressed to mine as she asked that question. Emma had discovered that her super human two year old strength allowed her to climb out of her crib. My heart beat a little faster, and as I gently made her back up, I realized I no longer had a little baby on my hands. I had a big girl who was ready to make some major transitions in her life! That very day we sat down as a family and began talking about turning our nursery into a room better suited to a growing toddler.

Letting Go

One of the most obvious results of having a baby around the house is to turn two good people into complete idiots who probably wouldn’t have been much worse than mere imbeciles without it. ~Georges Courteline, La Philosophie de Georges Courteline

The first thing my husband and I did was talk with our daughter about what it means to be a big kid. In her eyes, it was pretty simple: being a big kid meant sleeping in a big kid bed and playing with big kid toys. While Emma worked on pulling out toys she felt were too babyish, my husband and I began the search online for the perfect bed. We found one at a local store that fit our needs and could be used for many years to come.

I have to admit that putting away the crib was a little difficult for me. It felt like I was closing a door on a part of my life that had been wonderful, but then I realized that there was so much to look forward to. That thought made it easier to pull out the other things we were no longer using like the change table and the rocking chair.

A Fresh Start

I asked my daughter what she wanted to do with her room. She scrunched up her face and thought for a moment before saying, “Me want to be a princess!” Her room was already painted in a soft, pastel pink which lent itself easily to becoming a princess room. With some white chair railing placed on the center of the wall and faux crown molding along the ceiling line, we were on our way. I found a Disney princess mural which added the perfect storybook touch the room and even added a few sparkling stars here and there to complete a magical effect. We found inexpensive pink curtains and a matching lampshade, too. Of course, the thing that got my daughter excited the most was having new princess bed sheets! She couldn’t wait to go to bed that first night.

 

However, if princess sheets aren’t your child’s thing, consider other themes such as butterflies or even putting up wooden decorative ABCs. Another idea is to paint your child’s name or spell it out on the wall with wooden letters that can be purchased at an art supply store. Does your son or daughter have a favorite movie? Consider using that as a room theme, too. Paint the walls with their favorite character or stencil quotes from the movie on the wall. For a really nice touch, find a lava lamp to serve as a night light.

Creating Play Space

Once the cosmetic touches were complete in the room, it was time to begin thinking about how to best use the space. Toddlers are active and absorb lots of information. I really wanted this new Big Kid room to have certain areas where specific activities were emphasized. With that in mind, my husband created a bookshelf that sat next to a pink bean bag. This served as our reading center. I refurbished a child sized table and chairs, using them in our science/art center. All the blocks, Legos, and other toys were placed in a section of the room where they could be accessed easily, but also stored efficiently.

Enjoying the New Room

Our child fell in love with her new room, and we couldn’t have been happier. Allowing her to share her thoughts and opinions about how the room should look really allowed her to take ownership over the process. It gave her a strong sense of accomplishment and helped us see her for the big kid she was truly becoming.

About the Author

As a freelance writer, Isabelle Lori strives to provide insight for parents in search of information about parenting and children.  Her numerous articles range in topic from where to find a cars muralto the best way to redecorate a child’s room. In addition to that, Ms. Lori offers advice on money saving tips and helps explain confusing topics related to finance.

Your Newborn Reflexes

You should be able to find several indispensable facts about reflexes in the following paragraphs. If there’s at least one fact you didn’t know before, imagine the difference it might make.

Babies have special reflexes that last only a few months. It helps to know what the reflexes are so you are not alarmed when they occur.

I trust that what you’ve read so far has been informative. The following section should go a long way toward clearing up any uncertainty that may remain.

The following reflexes are normal for newborns:
Moro or startle reflex: This occurs when your baby’s head shifts position quickly. Or when her head falls backward. Or when your baby is startled by something loud. She will react by throwing out her arms and legs and extending her neck. Your baby will then quickly bring her arms together. She may cry when doing this. This reflex should go away after two months.

Rooting reflex: This is how your baby hunts for her mother’s breast. If you gently stroke the side of her cheek with your finger, she will turn her head toward your finger. This lasts for three to four months.

Grasp reflex: Your baby will clench her fist around anything pressed into the palm of her hand. You can show this to a big brother or sister. Say, The baby wants to hold on to your finger. This reflex goes away at five to six months.

Stepping reflex: If you hold a newborn baby upright under her arms with her feet on a hard surface, her feet will make a stepping action. This happens even though it is a long time before she is ready to stand or walk. This usually lasts a couple of months.

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about your baby’s reflexes.

Knowing enough about reflexes to make solid, informed choices cuts down on the fear factor. If you apply what you’ve just learned about reflexes, you should have nothing to worry about.